One of the best books that I have read regarding Instructional Strategies is Classroom Instruction That Works by Robert J. Marzano.
1. Identifying similarities and differences can play out in many ways in the classroom. Students can be engaged in tasks that involve comparisons, classifications, metaphors, and analogies. In addition, these tasks can be either more teacher directed or student directed. Graphic organizers are used frequently in these strategies.
2. Although we sometimes refer to summarizing and note taking as mere "study skills," they are two of the most powerful skills students can cultivate. They provide students with tools for identifying and understanding the most important aspects of what they are learning.
3. Reinforcing effort can help teach students one of the most valuable lessons they can learn – the harder you try, the more successful you are. In addition, providing recognition for attainment of specific goals not only enhances achievement, but it stimulates motivation.
4. Homework and practice are ways of extending the school day and providing students with opportunities to refine and extend their knowledge. Teachers can use both of the practices as powerful instructional tools.
5. Probably the most underused instructional strategy of all those reviewed in this book – creating nonlinguistic representations – helps students understand content in a whole new way. As we have seen, teachers can take a variety of approaches, ranging from graphic organizers to physical models.
6. Of all classroom grouping strategies, cooperative learning may be the most flexible and powerful. Teachers can use cooperative learning in a variety of ways in many different situations.
7. Generating and testing hypotheses is a basic cognitive skill which applies to a variety of tasks that are applicable to many subject areas.
8. Helping students think about new knowledge before experiencing it can go a long way toward enhancing student achievement. Teachers can use cues, questions, and advance organizers to facilitate this type of thinking in a variety of ways and formats.